需求分析,是所有产品运营增长人共同面临的首要问题

需求分析,是所有产品人共同面临的首要问题;而最直接、客观的方式,莫过于分析用户的行为记录,如何基于用户行为日志,进行搜索产品的用户需求分析呢?本文详细解读了三种不同的定量分析方法,以及它们的优劣势和异同点;

需求分析从方法上可以分为定性分析和定量分析。定性分析偏向于通过用户访谈等方式展开;定量分析则通常会基于用户使用产品过程中留下的客观记录进行统计分析,这些客观记录包括行为日志、交易日志等等。今天,我们就简单谈一下如何基于用户行为日志进行搜索产品的用户需求分析。

基于行为日志的搜索用户需求分析有三种不同的方法:第一种可以简称为Session分析:即详细分析用户行为序列,模拟并理解用户,总结归纳用户需求;第二种可以称之为Sug分析:基于搜索产品的特点,通过对Sug的分析,初步判断出用户的大致需求分布;第三种是Top Query分析,即提取出包含特定关键词的Query,进行归类分析,其分析精度和成本介于前两种方法之间。下面将对这三种分析方法分别进行简单的介绍。

 

Session分析

 

什么是Session?首先,我们回归到用户使用搜索产品的过程中,看看用户行为日志都包含哪些信息。当一个用户遇到问题,需要查找相关信息进行决策的时候,首先会来到搜索引擎,在搜索框里输入一个经过他大脑总结提炼的、与具体问题相关的关键词,我们称该关键词为“Query”,然后点击搜索按钮,发起一次搜索行为;然后进入到搜索结果页,在这个页面上会呈现出与该“Query”相关的结果,用户会进一步点击自己感兴趣的内容结果进行查阅。通过不断地进行类似的搜索和点击行为,最终会形成一个围绕本次搜索目的的行为序列,我们称之为“搜索行为Session”。

Session分析方法中最重要的就是搜索行为Session的统计分析,考虑到Query本身的多样性,以及上下文Query的语义关联的复杂关系,简单的统计分析无法进行深入的需求分析,因此需要分析师介入,进行人工识别和分析工作。具体做法通常是对搜索了特定Query的用户进行随机抽样,针对样本用户,分析师逐条查看用户的Session行为,并结合浏览器模拟用户使用过程中的真实场景,在此基础上进行用户需求的理解和总结归纳,从而得到搜索该Query的用户的真实需求及其分布情况,最终指导产品的优化。

举一个简单的例子:很多用户会搜索“58同城”或“赶集网”这类生活服务类Query,作于搜索产品的PM,如果想知道用户搜这类Query的根本需求是什么,可以通过行为日志抽取出具体的Session信息进行归纳统计,最后发现:74%的用户都是为了去往该网站,但是还有26%的用户并非寻址,而是另有意图,具体这部分用户的需求分布如下:

 

需求分析,是所有产品运营增长人共同面临的首要问题

图1 搜索“58同城”Query的用户的需求分布

 

具体需求对应的Session示例如下:

 

需求分析,是所有产品运营增长人共同面临的首要问题

图2 具体需求对应的行为Session示例

 

通过最终的总结分析,我们就可以准确地分析出用户搜索Query背后的真实需求,以及各类需求的占比分布,从而最终指导产品的优化设计。

 

Sug分析

Session分析通常相对比较耗时,需要分析人员模拟足够多的用户行为Session,并做细致的统计归纳,才能得出真实的需求分布。但有时候我们需要快速了解用户需求,如果对需求分布的精度能有一定程度的容忍,可以采用Sug分析这种低成本的方法。具体做法是分析用户搜索Query的Sug展现信息。举个例子,下述图片是“限行”Query的Sug信息:

 

需求分析,是所有产品运营增长人共同面临的首要问题

图3 “限行”Query的Sug信息

 

通过Sug分析,基本上能看出用户对“限行”的尾号、地域、政策、时间等方面有需求,其中对地域的需求最为强烈,能看到很多Sug都是“城市”+“限行”的组合特征。

通过这种快速分析,可以大概了解用户的需求。当然这么分析的背后原因是因为Sug产品本身主要是基于Query共现的频度设计的,而共现Query在一定程度上就能反映用户的需求分布,虽然该方法没有Session分析得到的结果精确,但对于大致了解用户需求还是有帮助的。

 

Top Query分析

 

Top Query分析在精度和成本上介于Sug分析和Session分析之间,简单讲,就是把包含特定关键词的所有Query都抽取出来,基于搜索频次做降序排列,针对Top100或1000的Query进行Query需求分类,得到较为精确的用户需求分布。仍以“限行”为例:

 

需求分析,是所有产品运营增长人共同面临的首要问题

图4 含“限行”Top Query的需求分析

 

通过对Top Query进行快速分析,即可得到用户搜索“限行”的本质需求,再结合搜索结果页当前的特定产品,就可以分析出产品的满足程度如何,例如:

 

需求分析,是所有产品运营增长人共同面临的首要问题

图5 “限行”Query的满足度分析

 

基于满足度分析,我们就知道下一步如何优化“限行”这个Query的搜索结果页内容了。
此外,理解用户的需求,也可以通过各种论坛、APP或网站产品进行归纳分析。例如,我们可以在百度知道里搜索“限行”这个Query,百度知道就会给出一系列包含“限行”的问题,这些问题也是用户需求的一种表现,例如:

 

需求分析,是所有产品运营增长人共同面临的首要问题

图6 百度知道中搜索“限行”的用户需求分析

 

通过对问题进行归纳总结,我们发现与搜索Sug、Top Query中表达的需求基本一致。

综上所述,在本文中我主要介绍了三种不同的搜索需求分析方法:Session分析的优点是能深入理解用户意图,给出准确的需求类别和分布,缺点是成本较高,速度较慢;Sug分析的优点是速度快,几乎零成本,缺点是只能把握需求的大概;Top Query分析则在能容忍长尾需求的前提下,给出较为准确的需求类别和分布,且成本相对较低,速度较快。

总之,用户需求分析是一个非常重要且复杂的工作,需要结合具体的产品、所能获取的数据,以及当时的需求背景来综合判断哪种方法更为合适,大家可以根据实际情况灵活应用。

 

 

文:涛哥/用户行为研究(ubs_voice)

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